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Contaminants in Your Drinking Water

How Contaminants Get Into Our Water Supply
Illustration © Copyright 2013 Fresh Water Systems, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

The water in our tap goes miles and miles to get to the kitchen sink. As the above illustration shows, there can be many ways that water can become contaminated in its journey to the tap.


Learn More:
Health Effects | What's in My Water? | Contaminants in the News | Removing Contaminants
Water Treatment Solutions


Why should I be worried about my drinking water?

Tap water generally comes from two primary sources: either from a municipal facility or from a private well or pond. Municipal facilities provide water for many homes and businesses and are required to meet certain federal standards by the EPA.

Municipalities are required to test water at the treatment plant for certain, dangerous contaminants. But, as long as the water is below the maximum contaminant levels issued by the EPA, they can still deliver water to their customers. (For more information on these levels see this pdf from the EPA.) These levels may still be harmful, especially to those whose immune systems are compromised or to the elderly and pregnant women. Some contaminants may be so new that federal contaminant guidelines have yet to be issued; one of these is the cancer-causing Chromium 6 (commonly known as the Erin Brockovich contaminant). Also, municipalities may not catch leaks in pipes or older systems that could fail, which can lead to water with higher contaminant levels arriving at your tap. These leaks generally lead to a boil alert being issued to the public.

Even though water leaving the municipal water facility may be relatively clean, contaminants in large distribution pipes or even in household plumbing can be introduced into the tap water. A recent article by the NY Times stated that often when researchers test water, they find that the water has more contaminants after entering the home or place of business than it does when leaving the municipal facility.

A second source of tap water comes from private wells and ponds; however, these are not regulated by local or federal governments in any way. The owner of the source of water is responsible for the quality of the water issuing out of the well or pond. As seen in the illustration above, there can be many sources that can cause contaminants to leak into groundwater, and then enter the well. These can include nitrates from fertilizer used on farms, sewage overflow from local flooding, and even chemical leaks from manufacturing.


What effects can contaminated water have on my health?

Each contaminant is caused by a different source. Pesticides may be in your water because of agricultural run-off. E. coli and other bacteria found in fecal matter may seep into your well if a neighbor's sewage tank is leaking. Just as each contaminant may have a different source, each one can have different health effects. Chlorine, a common disinfectant, can cause skin rashes. Low levels of arsenic can cause stomach problems and vomiting, but high levels have been known to cause cancer. Nitrates are known to inhibit cellular oxygen levels and can even be fatal for infants. For more information describing the health effects of each contaminant, see the individual pages below.


How do I know what’s in my water?

Depending on where you are, where your water comes from, and even what kind of building you live in, there may be many different types of contaminants in your water. If you have a well and live in the Midwest, you may have nitrates in your water, which can be deadly to women that are pregnant and infants. Or if you live in the Northeast in an older house, your family may be exposed to lead in the water due to leaching pipes. With all of these contaminants, the best way to know what is in your glass of water is to test the water coming from the tap. Here are some ways that you can find out:

Green Check MarkGet more information on contaminants from the Water Quality Association, a not-for-profit industry agency. 

Green Check MarkConsult the EPA, who offers detailed information on contaminants and testing. 

Green Check MarkPurchase a water testing kit to use at home or send a sample of your water in to a testing lab.

Green Check MarkNeed help? Call a Fresh Water Systems Certified Water Quality Specialist!Give our Certified Water Quality experts a call. Along with knowledgeable customer service agents, we can find the solution for your drinking water.




What water contaminants have been in the news lately?

  • An MCHM Chemical spill in West Virginia has left 300,000 people without drinking water. All local retailers have exhausted their supplies of bottled water, and FEMA has shipped in additional bottled water for residents of the affected areas. Details are still emerging about the possible health risks from MCHM water contamination, clean up procedures, and possible water MCHM water filter options. Click here for more details about your water and MCHM.

  • The New York Times followed some researchers in Pennsylvania as they tested various homes' and business' tap water. The researchers found that even though water municipalities use disinfectants at the water plant, these chemicals may not be strong enough to last all the way to the end of the distribution line. This can allow waterborne diseases like cryptosporidium to thrive in the pipes. Waterborne illnesses continue to cost patients in hospitals almost $1 billion per year. These types of bacteria and other contaminants that may still be coming through the tap point up the continued need for a final barrier treatment for homes and businesses.

  • Officials in Portland, Oregon, have recently warned customers that there are elevated levels of lead in tap water. Lead is a dangerous contaminant particularly to pregnant women and young children. It can cause serious birth defects, as well as delayed physical and mental development.

How do I remove contaminants from my drinking water?

We offer a variety of filtration and treatment options for any contaminant that may be in your water. For more information on a specific contaminant and your filtration options, click on the links below.



Water treatment solutions for


4-Methylcyclohexane Methanol (MCHM) Acidic Water Aluminum
Ammonia Arsenic Barium
Benzene Bicarbonate Water Alkalinity Borate - Boron
Bromide - Bromate Cadmium Calcium
Carbon Tetrachloride Chloramine Chlorine
Chromium Coliform and Other Bacteria Color
Copper Cryptosporidium Cyanide
Cyclospora E. Coli Fluoride
Giardia Lamblia Hydrogen Sulfide Iron
Lead Legionella Manganese
Mercury MTBE Nickel
Nitrates Nitrites Odor
Organic Compounds and Solids Perchlorate Pesticides
pH Water Quality Prescription Drugs Radium
Radon Selenium Silica
Sodium Chloride Sulfate Tannins
Trihalomethanes "THMs" Uranium Viruses
VOCs Water Hardness Water Tastes Bad
Water Turbidity